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Abstract This study empirically assessed a computer-crime victimization model by applying Routine Activities Theory. A self-report survey, which contained multiple measures of computer security, online lifestyles, and computer-crime victimization, was administered to college students to gather data to test the model.
Utilizing structural equation modeling facilitated the assessment of the new theoretical model by conveying an overall picture of the relationship among the causal factors in the proposed model.
The findings from this study provided empirical supports for the components of Routine Activities Theory by delineating patterns of computer-crime victimization. Society depends heavily on computer technology for almost everything in life. Computer technology use ranges from individual consumer sales to processing billions of dollars in the banking and financial industries.
The rapid development of technology is also increasing dependency on computer systems. Today, computer criminals are using this increased dependency as a significant opportunity to engage in illicit or delinquent behaviors.
It is almost impossible to have precise statistics on the number of computer crime and the Theories of cybercrime loss to victims because computer crimes are rarely detected by victims or reported to authorities Standler In addition, Theories of cybercrime in cyberspace is very scarce Britz This could, arguably, become a real threat to our lives.
However, the general population has not yet fully recognized the overall impact of computer crime. The purpose of this study is to estimate patterns of computer-crime victimization by applying routine activities theory. One of the main concepts from life-exposure theory, lifestyle variables, is arguably what Cohen and Felson refer to in routine activities theory as their target suitability component.
It is these lifestyle variables that contribute to potential computer-crime victimization.
Most people are confused about the difference between cyber-crime and computer crime. In fact, some cyber crime authors do not appropriately separate the use of the terms.
Therefore, before looking into the details on computer-crime victimization, it is necessary to define the difference between cyber crime and computer crime.
In general, special computer operating skills are not required to commit cyber crime. For example, a suspect and a victim may communicate via Web based chat-rooms, Microsoft Network messenger MSNor e-mail. In this case, even though the Internet probably assisted the suspect in communicating with the victim, it does not mean that the technology or the Internet caused the crime Casey Indeed, in computer-assisted crimes, a computer does not have to play a major role in the crime.
It can merely be the tool that is used by the suspect that assists in facilitating the eventual offense such as in the case of fraud or in a confidence scam. The computer crimes usually require more than a basic level of computer-operating skill for offenders to commit these crimes successfully against the victims.
The focus of the proposed research is on individual victimization through computer crimes, particularly computer hacking, which can include the implantation of computer viruses.
The number of individuals victimized by computer crimes has increased annually Gordon et al This suggests that the hacker world is rapidly changing for the worse. Unfortunately, the general population has still not recognized the overall seriousness of computer crime.
As previously stated, the purpose of this study is to explain the causes of computer-crime victimization via specific components from traditional victimization theories lifestyle-exposure theory and routine activities theory at a micro level.
The sections that follow will present an overview of lifestyle-exposure theory and routine activities theory, how routine activities theory is merely an expansion of lifestyle-exposure theory, and an overview of computer crime and victimization.
A review of the relevant literature is presented followed by a discussion of the research methods, and a presentation of the data analysis.This paper will analyze aspects of the above theories, for the purpose of seeing which best explains the cause of cybercrime.
Akers’ social learning theory is a general theory of crime and has been used to explain a diverse array of criminal behaviours. The anthology Cybercrime and Criminological Theory: Fundamental Readings on Hacking, Piracy, Theft, and Harassment explores the predictors for participation in various forms of cybercrime and deviance, from common problems like media piracy, to more distinct offenses such as computer hacking.
Most criminological theories were 3/5(1).
Introduction. There is no standard unit of analysis, and multiple terms are used to describe offenses often classified as cybercrime. In fact the terms “cybercrime” and “computer crime” have become nearly synonymous, although there is . Theories of Cybercrime Theories of Cybercrime. Overview of Theories of Cybercrime in relation to cyber crime: Beginning in the nineteenth century new scientific methods led to discoveries having to do with trait theory.
Applying Routine Activity Theory to Cybercrime: A Theoretical and Empirical Analysis Eric Rutger Leukfeldt Open University of the Netherlands, Heerlen, the Netherlands, NHL University of Applied Sciences, Leeuwarden, the Netherlands, Dutch Police Academy, Apeldoorn, the Netherlands Correspondence [email protected] You can learn a lot about cybercrime by watching these flicks – Steve Morgan, Editor-in-Chief Menlo Park, Calif.
– Nov. 18, We’ve often been asked by our readers if we know of some good cybersecurity movies.