Introduction When British author Rudyard Kipling visited Chicago inhe described a city captivated by technology and blinded by greed. They repeated their statements again and again. Library of Congress, LC-D Chicago embodied the triumph of American industrialization.
Its meatpacking industry typified the sweeping changes occurring in American life. The last decades of the nineteenth century, a new era for big business, saw the formation of large corporations, run by trained bureaucrats and salaried managers, doing national and international business.
The Chicago meat processing industry, a cartel of five firms, produced four fifths of the meat bought by American consumers. InChicago had a population of about thirty thousand. Twenty years later, it had three hundred thousand. The Great Chicago Fire leveled 3. By the turn of the twentieth century, the city was home to 1.
Bya majority did. But if many who flocked to Chicago and other American cities came from rural America, many others emigrated from overseas. Chicago, like many other American industrial cities, was also an immigrant city.
The rise of cities, the evolution of American immigration, the transformation of American labor, the further making of a mass culture, the creation of great concentrated wealth, the growth of vast city slums, the conquest of the West, the emergence of a middle class, the problem of poverty, the triumph of big business, widening inequalities, battles between capital and labor, the final destruction of independent farming, breakthrough technologies, environmental destruction: National railroad mileage tripled in the twenty years after the outbreak of the Civil War, and tripled again over the four decades that followed.
Railroads impelled the creation of uniform time zones across the country, gave industrialists access to remote markets, and opened the American West. Their vast national operations demanded the creation of innovative new corporate organization, advanced management techniques, and vast sums of capital.
Their huge expenditures spurred countless industries and attracted droves of laborers. And as they crisscrossed the nation, they created a national market, a truly national economy, and, seemingly, a new national culture. Their vast capital requirements required the use of incorporation, a legal innovation that protected shareholders from losses.
Enormous amounts of government support followed. Federal, state, and local governments offered unrivaled handouts to create the national rail networks. This print shows the four stages of pork packing in nineteenth-century Cincinnati.
This centralization of production made meat-packing an innovative industry, one of great interest to industrialists of all ilks. As railroad construction drove economic development, new means of production spawned new systems of labor.
Many wage earners had traditionally seen factory work as a temporary stepping-stone to attaining their own small businesses or farms. After the war, however, new technology and greater mechanization meant fewer and fewer workers could legitimately aspire to economic independence.
Stronger and more organized labor unions formed to fight for a growing, more-permanent working class.
At the same time, the growing scale of economic enterprises increasingly disconnected owners from their employees and day-to-day business operations. To handle their vast new operations, owners turned to managers.
Educated bureaucrats swelled the ranks of an emerging middle class. Industrialization also remade much of American life outside the workplace.
Rapidly growing industrialized cities knit together urban consumers and rural producers into a single, integrated national market. Food production and consumption, for instance, were utterly nationalized.
Between andranchers drove a million head of cattle annually overland from Texas ranches to railroad depots in Kansas for shipment by rail to Chicago. Buffalo herds, grasslands, and old-growth forests gave way to cattle, corn, and wheat.
Chicago became the Gateway City, a crossroads connecting American agricultural goods, capital markets in New York and London, and consumers from all corners of the United States.
Technological innovation accompanied economic development. The story was a joke, of course, but Edison nevertheless received inquiries from readers wondering when the food machine would be ready for the market. Americans had apparently witnessed such startling technological advances—advances that would have seemed far-fetched mere years earlier—that the Edison food machine seemed entirely plausible.
Far from a lone inventor gripped by inspiration toiling in isolation, Edison advanced the model of commercially minded management of research and development.
Edison folded his two identities, business manager and inventor, together.
By late fallEdison exhibited his system of power generation and electrical light for reporters and investors.Rivers, Cities and First States, – BCE.
Surplus production freed many inhabitants from agricultural labor, and rural wealth soon produced urban splendor. Cities appeared by BCE, The demand for weapons also encouraged economic and technological innovations. BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT IN CHINA: ECONOMIC, POLITICAL, AND CULTURAL FACTORS.
Georgine K. Fogel, Lawrence Technological University. ABSTRACT. China is an emerging economy that offers lot of market opportunities for foreign investment. Rivers, Cities and First States, – BCE. Surplus production freed many inhabitants from agricultural labor, and rural wealth soon produced urban splendor.
Cities appeared by BCE, The demand for weapons also encouraged economic and technological innovations. The Impact of Political, Economic, and Cultural Forces. By William Julius Wilson. T. hrough the second half of the. The Social and Educational Factors Contributing to the Outcomes of Black Males in Urban Schools, 34 percent of black children under age 18 lived in poverty, compared.
The Impact of Political, Economic, and Cultural Forces. By William Julius Wilson.
T. hrough the second half of the. The Social and Educational Factors Contributing to the Outcomes of Black Males in Urban Schools, 34 percent of black children under age 18 lived in poverty, compared.
82 Chapter 18 Industry, Immigrants, and Cities, — Chapter Summary Chapter 18 tells the story of late nineteenth-century northeastern urban and industrial development.