Last Edited December 8, Separatism refers to the advocacy of separation or secession by a group or people from a larger political unit to which it belongs.
Introduction[ edit ] Canada's large geographic size, the presence and survival of a significant number of indigenous peoples, the conquest of one European linguistic population by another and relatively open immigration policy have led to an extremely diverse society.
Indigenous Peoples[ edit ] Young girl from Tla-o-qui-aht First Nations in traditional tree fibre clothing - ca. The Metis are an indigenous people whose culture and identity was produced by a fusion of First Nations with the French, Irish and Scottish fur trade society of the north and west.
By allying with the Algonquinsfor example, Champlain gained an alliance with the Wyandot or Huron of today's Ontario, and the enmity of the Iroquois of what is now northern New York State.
Although English settlement began in Newfoundland inand the Hudson's Bay Company was chartered init was only with the Treaty of Utrecht in that France ceded to Great Britain its claims to mainland Nova Scotia and significant British colonization of what would become mainland Canada would begin.
The Seven Years' War between Great Britain and France resulted in the conquest of New France by the British in at the Battle of the Plains of Abrahaman event that reverberates profoundly even today in the national consciousness of Quebecers.
Although there were deliberate attempts made by the British to assimilate the French speaking population to English language and culture, most notably the Act of Union that followed the seminal report of Lord DurhamBritish colonial policy for Canada on the whole was one which acknowledged and permitted the continued existence of French language and culture.
Je me souviens, English: Revolution, Invasion and Confederation[ edit ] For its part, the identity of English speaking Canada was profoundly influenced by another pivotal historic event, the American Revolution.
Americans who remained loyal to the Crown and who actively supported the British during the Revolution saw their lands and goods confiscated by the new republic at the end of the war. Some 60, persons, known in Canada as United Empire Loyalists fled the United States or were evacuated after the war, coming to Nova Scotia and Quebec where they received land and some assistance from the British government in compensation and recognition for having taken up arms in defence of King George III and British interests.
This population formed the nucleus for two modern Canadian provinces—Ontario and New Brunswick—and had a profound demographic, political and economic influence on Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island and Quebec.
Conservative in politics, distrustful or even hostile towards Americans, republicanism, and especially American republicanism,  this group of people marked the British of British North America as a distinctly identifiable cultural entity for many generations, and Canadian commentators continue to assert that the legacy of the Loyalists still plays a vital role in English Canadian identity.
According to the author and political commentator Richard Gwyn while "[t]he British connection has long vanished The first invasion occurred inand succeeded in capturing Montreal and other towns in Quebec before being repelled at Quebec City by a combination of British troops and local militia.
During this invasion, the French-speaking Canadiens assisted both the invaders from the United Colonies and the defending British. The British were assisted again by local militia, this time not only the Canadiens, but also the descendants of the Loyalists who had arrived barely a generation earlier.
The Americans however captured control of Lake Erie, cutting off what is today western Ontario; they killed Tecumseh and dealt the Indian allies a decisive defeat from which they never recovered.
The War of has been called "in many respects a war of independence for Canada".
During the same period immigration of Catholic Irish brought large numbers of settlers who had no attachment, and often a great hostility, toward the imperial power. The hostility of other groups to the autocratic colonial administrations that were not based on democratic principles of responsible governmentprincipally the French-speaking population of Lower Canada and newly arrived American settlers with no particular ties to Great Britain, were to manifest themselves in the short-lived but symbolically powerful Rebellions of The term "Canadian", once describing a francophone population, was adopted by English-speaking residents of the Canadas as well, marking the process of converting 'British' immigrants into 'Canadians.
As the population of English-speaking and largely Protestant Canada West grew to surpass that of majority French-speaking Catholic Canada East, the population of Canada West began to feel that its interests were becoming subservient to the francophone population of Canada East. Proclamation of Canadian Confederation The union of the Provinces of Canada, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick into a federation in drew on all of the primary aspects of the Canadian identity: The republic to the south had just finished its Civil War as a powerful and united nation with little affection for Britain or its colonial baggage strung along its northern border.
So great was the perceived threat that even Queen Victoria thought, prior to Confederation, that it would be "impossible" for Britain to retain Canada. British Columbia joined Confederation in Residents of a British colony specifically established to forestall American territorial aspirations in the Fraser ValleyBritish Columbians were no strangers to the implications of the American doctrine of Manifest Destiny nor the economic attractions of the United States.
The construction of the Canadian Pacific Railwaypromised to British Columbia as an inducement to join the new dominion, became a powerful and tangible symbol of the nation's identity, linking the provinces and territories together from east to west in order to counteract the inevitable economic and cultural pull from the south.
The settlement of the west also brought to the fore the tensions between the English and French-speaking populations of Canada.
The controversial execution of Thomas Scotta Protestant from Ontario, on Riel's orders and the furor that followed divided the new dominion along linguistic and religious lines. While Manitoba was created as a bilingual province in as a solution to the issue, the tensions remained, and would surface again in the Northwest Rebellion in the s, when Riel led another rebellion against Ottawa.
Canada’s debt began with $75,, (Canadian) at the time of confederation in , when certain obligations were taken over from the provinces. The figure grew slowly until , largely because of government railroad financing. The Western Canada Concept was a Western Canadian political party founded in to promote the separation of the provinces of Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta and British Columbia and the Yukon and Northwest Territories from Canada in order to create a new nation. The question of Canadian identity was traditionally dominated by two fundamental themes: first, the often conflicted relations between English Canadians and French Canadians stemming from the French Canadian imperative for cultural and linguistic survival; secondly, the generally close ties between English Canadians and the British Empire, resulting in a gradual political process towards complete .
A demand will be made that parliament should investigate the matter before voting any money to promote this kind of immigration.Douglas H. Christie, Leader, Western Block Party. December 15, BASIC POLICY OF THE WESTERN BLOCK PARTY.
Our one goal is to achieve Independence for all Western Canada after referenda in each of the four Western provinces.
The independence of Western Canada is the only viable political solution to an unbalanced federal system which favours Quebec and Ontario and has consistently plundered Western resources. If you have any doubt about this, ask yourself what happens to the Canadian dollar when the price of .
The concept of Western civilization may be useful in understanding the similarities in many cultures, but it's not perfect, which is something we always have to remember.
The world's more complex. Canada became entirely self-governing within the British Empire in , though full legislative independence was not achieved until , when Canada obtained the .
The Western Canada Concept was a Western Canadian political party founded in to promote the separation of the provinces of Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta and British Columbia and the Yukon and Northwest Territories from Canada in order to create a new nation.
CALGARY -- Western Canada Concept party leader Gordon Kesler admits he would use the threat of separation in his negotiations with Ottawa if elected premier.
But the WCC head also says 'separatist.